- The formation of Triple Entente (Russia, France and Britain) in 1907 and Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy) in 1882 laid the foundation of global war (World War 1) that started in 1914. These treaties formed the two powers during WW1, the Allies and the Central Powers respectively.
- Italy had alliance with Germany and Austria-Hungary. But the country entered the World War 1 in support of Allied powers in 1915.
immediate cause of start of World War 1 was the assassination of heir of Austro-Hungarian Empire, Franz Ferdinand, by a member of a Yugoslav
terrorist organization Young Bosnia.
WW1 started after assassination of Franz Ferdinand
- The number plate of car carrying Franz Ferdinand has a strange coincidence with the ending of WW1. The number plate license is AIII 118. The armistice to end the war was signed on 11th November 1918. (Source)
- At the start of WW1, it was expected to be a short lived battle. But it continued for 4 years and resulted in deaths of millions.
War 1 was a global warfare that was
fought on 3 continents (Europe, Asia and Africa) while forces from Australian
and North American continents also took part in WW1.
4 million men from colonies fought the WW1
- More than 4 million men from various European colonies participated in WW1. (Source)
- Around 16 million animals (dogs, horses, pigeons etc.) served during WW1. 9 million of them perished. (Source)
- Pigeons played important role during WW1. Few of these birds accomplished their tasks despite receiving injuries. (Source)
- More than 100,000 pigeons were used during WW1. These birds were the most reliable means for sending messages. (Source)
were invented during World War 1 by Britain. The first model was named Little Willie.
Britain invented the first-ever tank during WW1
- British tanks were marked as male and female tanks during WW1. Tank armed with gun was known as “Male Tank” while tank only with machine guns was “Female Tank”. (Source)
- Russia contributed 12,000,000 men for World War 1 and provided the largest military for Allied Powers.
- Around 3 million (military and civilian) Russians lost their lives during WW1 which is the highest by any combating nation.
- These deaths and financial crisis during WW1 was the direct cause of Russian Revolution in 1917 after which Russia ended its participation in the World War 1.
- World War 1 resulted in downfall of Russian Empire, German Empire, Ottoman Empire and Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- On the first day of Battle of Somme, 1st July 1916, Britain lost 19,200 men which is highest number of deaths of Britain in any conflict in a single day.
Empire is blamed for genocide of Armenian people during World War 1. Around 1.5 million Armenians were killed
Over 1 million Armenians died during WW1
- Serbia lost more than half (around 57%) of its male population during World War 1.
- Australia had the highest casualty rate during WW1. Almost 65% Australian soldiers were killed or wounded during the war. (Source)
- During Gallipoli Campaign (April 1915-January 1916), more than 11,000 soldiers from Australia and New Zealand lost their lives. The day of landing on Gallipoli (April 25) is remembered as Anzac Day in both Australia and New Zealand.
- Around 39 million soldiers from both sides were dead, wounded or missing during World War 1.
- World War 1 effectively ended in November 1918 and treaties were signed with all the losing Central Powers in 1920 and 1921. But the nationalist leaders of Turkey rejected the conditions of Treaty of Sevres and started Turkish War of Independence. The war remained successful and Turkey regained all the lost territories of Anatolia and later signed quite respectable Treaty of Lausanne that resulted in the formation of Republic of Turkey.
- Due to harsh conditions against Germany after the end of World War 1, the war is known as one of the causes of World War 2 as Hitler and his party used these conditions for propaganda to gain support of German public.
the end of World War 1, League of
Nations was formed in June 1919 in order to prevent any such large scale
League of Nations failed to prevent WW2
- Modern flamethrowers were initially used by Germany during World War 1.
- The term dogfight (close range aerial battle) was first used during World War 1.
- In 1914, both warring sides of WW1 observed truce to celebrate Christmas. It is known as “Christmas Truce” and regarded as one of the strangest events of human war history. (Source)
surgery was invented during World War 1. World’s first plastic surgery was done
in 1917 to a wounded WW1 soldier. (Source)
Plastic surgery was invented during WW1
- On 7th June 1917, British engineers blasted 19 massive mines beneath German trenches. This resulted in most powerful man-made explosion after nuclear blasts. These blasts killed around 10,000 German soldiers. These mines were buried near a Belgian village but the explosion was also heard in London. (Source)
- Up to 12 million letters were delivered to soldiers every week during WW1. Many of these were delivered to soldiers on the frontline. (Source)
- The youngest soldier that fought during WW1 was an 8 year old Serbian boy named Momcilo Gavric. (Source)
concept of blood banks was developed during WW1. The first blood bank was
opened in 1932 thanks to the experience gained in World War 1. (Source)
Concept of blood bank originated during WW1
- Initial motorized ambulances were used during WW1. Walt Disney and Ernest Hemmingway also served as ambulance drivers during this war. (Source)
- The women worked in munitions factories had yellow skin thanks to the affects of toxic chemicals. These girls were known as “canary girls”. Few of these workers gave birth to babies of “bright yellow” color. (Source)
- German was the most studied foreign language in USA before WW1. After entering the war, USA banned German language and took several other steps against German culture. (Source)
pilot Manfred von Richthofen (also known as the Red baron) was the most
successful pilot of WW1 who shot down 80 opponent’s planes. (Source)
Manfred shot down 80 Allied planes
- Germans were the first to use poisonous gas during WW1 in January 1915. Both sides used 100,000 tons of chemical weapons during the war that resulted in 30,000 deaths and 500,000 injuries. (Source)
used a 420 mm howitzer during WW1. This 47 ton weighed gun was nicknamed “Big
Bertha”. Services of 240 men were required to operate this gun. It was the
largest and most powerful mobile artillery piece of its time. A total of 12 Big
Berthas were used by Germany during World War 1. (Source)
Germans used large and powerful guns during WW1
- Britain was able to intercept and decode a telegram sent by German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann to German minister in Mexico in January 1917. The secret message was about the German-Mexican alliance in case of US participation in the war. The Zimmermann telegram played major role in US declaration of war against Germany. (Source)
- Large number of soldiers of WW1 suffered with war-related psychological disorders known as shell shock. Shell shock was observed in more than 80,000 British soldiers after the end of the First World War. (Source)
- Edith Cavell, a British nurse, saved soldiers
of both sides. In 1915, Germany executed her for playing part in escape of 200
Allied soldiers. (Source)
A British nurse saved soldiers of both sides
- Russia recruited women as soldiers after the 1917 February Revolution as a last effort to elevate their war efforts. The all-female battalions of these Russian women were known as “Battalions of death” and they took part in the war alongside male soldiers. (Source)
- Battle of Verdun was the longest battle of WW1. It lasted for 300 days and resulted in around 800,000 casualties from both sides. (Source)
- Battle of Verdun has turned the affected area into a “Red Zone”. Due to large number of explosives and toxicity, it is not possible to live or use the soil, water or animals of this area for more than 300 years. (Source)
22nd September 1914, a German U-boat (SM U-9) sank 3 British
cruisers in less than an hour. This incident took lives of 1,500 British
202 u-boats were lost during WW1
- Germans lost 202 U-boats during WW1. (Source)
- Germany faced food shortages during winter of 1916-17 thanks to the British blockade. This period was named “Turnip Winter” in Germany as people had to eat turnip (considered to be inferior animal food) to avoid starvation. (Source)
- Jack Cormwell was the youngest recipient of Victoria Cross during WW1 at the age of 16 years. He died as sailor in 1916 during the Battle of Jutland. (Source)
- 1920 is known as the biggest ever year for birth of babies in Britain. More than 1.1 million live babies were born in the UK in 1920. This biggest baby boom of 20th Century in the UK came after the end of WW1 and Spanish flu. (Source)
All the galaxies, stars, planets, moons, intergalactic space, energy and matter are included in the universe.According to a commonly accepted Big Bang theory, the universe came in to being around 13.8 billion years ago through a ‘big bang’.The universe is composed of Dark Energy (68.3%), Dark Matter (26.8%) and Ordinary Matter (4.9%).All the stars, planets and other known objects are made from Ordinary Matter.Dark energy and dark matter are invisible. (Source)In 2011, NASA’s Kepler spacecraft discovered the darkest planet in the universe that reflects less than 1% of the light it receives from its star. TrES-2b is the size of Jupiter. One side of this planet always faces the star. No other planet or moon is comparable to this planet. (Source) The universe is expanding continuously and Dark Energy is responsible for accelerating the expansion of universe.Due to constant expansion of the universe, it is not possible to know the exactsize of universe as the observable universe is limited…